In Chinese history there are four great inventions (四大發明, sì dà fā míng): the compass (指南针, zhǐnánzhēn), gunpowder (火药, huǒyào), paper (造纸术, zào zhǐ shù), and printing technology (活字印刷术, huózì yìnshuā shù). Since ancient times, there have been dozens of other noteworthy inventions which have made people’s lives easier around the world.
Learn about Chinese inventions and their origins, how they work, and where to purchase them.
The Four Great Chinese Inventions:
Before the compass was invented, explorers had to look at the sun, moon, and stars for directional guidance. The Chinese first used magnetic rocks to determine north and south. This technique was later incorporated into the design of the compass.
The Chinese first used gunpowder to make explosives used by the military in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (五代十國, Wǔdài Shíguó). The Chinese invented cannons made of cast iron, cast iron landmines, and rockets, and gunpowder was used to make bamboo fireworks in the Song Dynasty.
The first version of paper was made of hemp, rag, and fishing net. The course paper was created in the Western Han Dynasty but it was too hard to write on so it wasn’t widely used. Cai Lun (蔡倫), a eunuch in the Eastern Han Dynasty court, invented a fine, white paper made of bark, hemp, cloth, and fishing net that could easily be written on.
Moveable type was invented by Bi Sheng (畢昇), a craftsman who worked in a book factory in Hangzhou in the eleventh century. Characters were carved onto reusable clay blocks which were fired and then arranged in a metal holder brushed with ink. This invention contributed greatly to the history of printing.
Other Chinese Inventions:
Emperor Xin (帝辛), also called King Zhou (紂王) made ivory chopsticks during the Shang Dynasty. Bamboo, metal and other forms of chopsticks later evolved into the eating utensils used today.
Beijing pharmacist Hon Lik invented the electronic cigarette in 2003. It is sold through Hon’s Hong Kong company Ruyan (如煙).
Horticulture has a long history in China. To improve the shape, color and quality of plants, grafting was used in the sixth century. Greenhouses were also used to cultivate vegetables.
Lu Ban (魯班), an engineer, philosopher and artisan created a wooden bird in the fifth century BC which served as the first kite. Kites were first used as rescue signals when Nanjing was attacked by General Hou Jing. Kites were also flown for fun starting in the Northern Wei period.