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When people think of Confucianism, they usually think of Confucius. But Mencius is another critical figure in the history of Confucianism and Chinese thought, and his opinion on the nature of man in particular is of paramount importance in understanding Confucian thought.

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Mohism was an ancient Chinese philosophy epsoused by the followers of Mozi during the Warring States period, but it failed to catch on the way Daoism and Confucianism did.


Xunzi, the third most important thinker in Confucianism, is best known for advocating the opposite position from Mencius: that humans are inherently bad.


Mencius was a Chinese philosopher who was considered the second most important figure in Confucianism.

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